Accounting policies

Employee benefits

Employees (including Directors) of the Group receive part of their remuneration in the form of share-based payments, whereby, depending on the scheme, employees render services in exchange for rights over shares ("equity-settled transactions") or entitlement to a future cash payment ("cash-settled transactions").

The cost of equity-settled transactions with employees is measured, where appropriate, with reference to the fair value at the date on which they are granted. Where options need to be valued an appropriate valuation model is applied. The expected life used in the model has been adjusted, based on management's best estimate, for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions and behavioural considerations.

The cost of cash-settled transactions is measured with reference to the fair value of the liability, which is taken to be the closing price of the Company's shares. Until the liability is settled it is remeasured at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement, with any changes in the fair value being recognised in the Income statement for the period. For more details please refer to Note 3.11 Provisions — Employee incentive schemes.

The cost of equity-settled transactions is recognised, along with a corresponding increase in equity, over the years in which the performance conditions are fulfilled, ending on the date on which the relevant employees become fully entitled to the award ("vesting date"). The cost of cash-settled transactions is recognised, along with a corresponding provision for the expected cash settlement, over the vesting period.

At each reporting date, the cumulative expense recognised for equity-settled transactions reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the number of awards that, in the opinion of management, will ultimately vest. Management's estimates are based on the best available information at that date.

No expense is recognised for awards that do not ultimately vest, except for awards where vesting is conditional upon a market condition, which are treated as vesting irrespective of whether or not the market condition is satisfied, provided that all other performance conditions are satisfied.

The Group has exposure in respect of cash-settled share-based payment transactions and share-based payment transactions with cash alternatives as defined by IFRS 2 "Share-Based Payment" in respect of bad leaver provisions in the Group's JSOS and the Cash LTIP (see Note 3.11 Provisions). National insurance contribution (NIC) obligations arising from cash-settled schemes and HMRC unapproved equity-settled schemes are treated as if they are cash settled, regardless of the actual cash/equity determination of the scheme itself.

Share options and other equity instruments

The Group operates various employee share incentive schemes, namely the Executive Share Ownership Scheme (the "ESOS"), the Joint Share Ownership Scheme (the "JSOS"), the Sharesave Scheme, the Long Term Incentive Plan ("LTIP"), the Growth Incentive Plan ("GIP") and the share incentive plan ("SIP"). The Group also operates a cash-settled incentive scheme, the Cash LTIP.

The total expense for the period relating to employee share-based payment plans was £6.0 million (2013: £3.3 million), of which £4.4 million related to equity-settled share-based payment transactions and £1.6 million as a provision for the payment of employers' NIC upon allotment of HMRC unapproved equity-settled share schemes and for the Cash LTIP (see Note 3.11 Provisions for further details).

(a) ESOS

The Group's ESOS is an equity-settled share option scheme approved by HMRC. Options have also be granted under the terms of HMRC's schedule, which is not approved. The ESOS was established by Ocado in 2001.

Under the ESOS, Ocado or the trustees of an employee trust may grant options over shares in the Company to eligible employees. The eligible employees to whom options are granted and the terms of such options will be determined by the Directors of Ocado or the trustees. The employees who are eligible to participate in the ESOS are all Ocado's Executive Directors and employees, including the employees of the Company's subsidiaries. Options are not transferable. The exercise price of options may not be less than the market value of the Company's shares on the date of grant. If the trustees or the Directors have determined that the exercise of an option will be satisfied by the issue of ordinary shares, the exercise price may also not be less than the nominal value of ordinary shares.

The Directors of Ocado or the trustees may impose a performance target and any further condition determined to be appropriate on the exercise of an option. In most cases any performance target must be measured over a period of at least three years. There are currently no options granted which are subject to performance targets that have not yet been met. The vesting period for the ESOS is three years. If the options remain unexercised after a period of ten years from the date of grant or the employee leaves the Group, the options expire (subject to a limited number of exceptions).

At each respective Balance sheet date the outstanding options were as follows:

Year of
issue
30 November
2014
Exercise
price (£)
1 December
2013
Exercise
price (£)
Exercise period
Approved20040.9028,9230.9031/05/07–29/11/14
200585,3331.00115,1091.0031/05/08–29/11/15
20054,7821.1513,7521.1531/05/08–30/05/15
20068,0861.409,1451.4031/05/09–30/05/16
20065,9601.509,2051.5030/11/09–29/11/16
2007107,5271.50128,1291.5031/05/10–29/11/17
200826,5701.3538,5451.3531/05/11–30/05/18
200852,3581.2086,9271.2030/11/11–29/11/18
200949,0391.2051,7721.2031/05/12–30/05/19
2009201,3111.35279,7141.3502/11/12–29/11/19
2010230,9581.65333,6231.6530/06/13–29/06/20
2011125,2691.89181,2711.8919/07/14–18/07/21
2011265,5812.55584,9932.5514/02/14–13/02/21
2012372,2780.85417,0700.8527/06/15–26/06/22
2012681,3891.03786,5561.0321/02/15–13/02/22
2012817,8641.05850,7321.0509/03/15–08/03/22
2013661,4621.28856,4421.2805/03/16–04/03/23
2013210,3433.02291,6693.0208/07/16–07/07/23
201465,5855.1005/02/14–04/02/24
2014453,3534.8417/03/14–16/03/24
20141,2783.3601/08/14–31/07/24
Total approved options 4,426,326 5,063,577  
Year of
issue
30 November
2014
Exercise
price (£)
1 December
2013
Exercise
price (£)
Exercise period
Unapproved20051.007541.0030/11/08–29/11/15
2005354,1501.15582,9501.1516/05/08–29/11/15
200750,8331.5050,8331.5031/05/10–30/05/17
2009122,6001.20122,6001.2031/05/12–30/05/19
2012135,1661.05112,0761.0509/03/15–08/03/22
201413,5123.2708/08/14–07/08/24
201429,9623.3601/08/14–31/07/24
201425,7564.8417/03/14–16/03/24
Total unapproved options731,979869,213  
Total5,158,3055,932,790  

Of the total employee share options above, the following options were subject to performance criteria in relation to the average contribution by basket and EBITDA:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Year of
issue
Number of
share options
Exercise
price (£)
Number of
share options
Exercise
price (£)
Exercise period
200531,1161.1553,0011.1531/05/08–30/05/15
 2009139,6001.20139,6001.2031/05/12–30/05/19
Total options subject to performance criteria 170,716 192,601  

Details of the movement in the number of share options outstanding during each period are as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Number of
share options
Weighted average exercise price (£)Number of
share options
Weighted average exercise price (£)
Outstanding at the beginning of the period5,932,7901.428,835,5781.33
Granted during the period603,7794.751,479,2201.71
Forfeited during the period(522,409)1.66(1,722,506)1.56
Exercised during the period(855,855)1.73(2,659,502)1.31
Outstanding at the end of the period5,158,3051.735,932,7901.42
Exercisable at the end of the period1,690,3571.551,895,7101.31

Since the Company's Admission, the market value of the Company's shares at each option grant date was taken to be the closing mid-market price of the shares on the day prior to issuance. Prior to the Admission, the market value of the Company's shares was derived based on the market value of similar companies and by taking into account transactions with shareholders during the relevant period. The Share Valuation Office of HMRC has confirmed in correspondence that in respect of options granted prior to Admission, the exercise price was not less than the market value of the Company's shares at each option grant date.

For exercises during the period, the weighted average share price at the date of exercise was £4.64 (2013: £2.92).

In determining the fair value of the share options granted during the period, the Black–Scholes Option Pricing Model was used with the following inputs:

30 November
2014
1 December
2013
Weighted average share price£4.75£1.71
Weighted average exercise price£4.75£1.71
Expected volatility0.400.25
Weighted expected life — years3.003.00
Risk-free interest rate1.2%3.5%
Expected dividend yield0.0%0.0%

Given the immaturity of the Company's share history, the expected volatility was determined by considering the historic performance of the shares of a basket of companies similar to and including the Company. The expected life used in the model has been adjusted, based on management's best estimate, for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions, and behavioural considerations. All share awards under the ESOS are equity-settled.

The weighted average remaining contractual lives for outstanding share options under the ESOS are as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Exercise price
(£)
Number of
share options
Weighted average remaining contractual life (years)Exercise price
(£)
Number of
share options
Weighted average remaining contractual life (years)
0.85372,2787.60.85417,0708.6
0.900.9028,9230.8
1.0085,3330.91.00115,8631.9
1.03681,3897.21.03786,5568.2
1.05953,0307.31.05962,8088.3
1.15358,9320.51.15596,7021.5
1.20223,9974.41.20261,2995.4
1.28661,4628.31.28856,4429.3
1.35227,8814.81.35318,2595.8
1.408,0861.51.409,1452.5
1.50164,3202.61.50188,1673.6
1.65230,9585.61.65333,6236.6
1.89125,2696.61.89181,2717.6
2.55265,5816.22.55584,9937.2
3.02210,3438.63.02291,6699.6
3.2713,5129.7
3.3631,2409.7
4.84479,1099.3
5.1065,5859.2
Outstanding at the end of the period5,158,305  5,932,790 

(b) JSOS

The JSOS is an executive incentive scheme which was introduced to incentivise and retain its Executive Directors and select members of senior management of the Group (the "Participants"). It is a share ownership scheme under which the Participants and Appleby Trust (Jersey) Limited, the Employee Benefit Trust Trustee, held at the Balance sheet date separate beneficial interests in 34,810,561 (2013: 35,249,176) ordinary shares which represents 5.6% (2013: 5.7%) of the issued share capital of the Company. Of these ordinary shares, 1,453,254 (2013: 1,453,254) are held by the Employee Benefit Trust on an unallocated basis.

Nature of interests

Interests take the form of a restricted interest in ordinary shares in the Company (the "Interest"). An Interest permits a Participant to benefit from the increase (if any) in the value of a number of ordinary shares in the Company ("Shares") over specified threshold amounts. In order to acquire an Interest, a Participant must enter into a joint share ownership agreement with the Employee Benefit Trust Trustee, under which the Participant and the Employee Benefit Trust Trustee jointly acquire the Shares and agree that once all vesting conditions have been satisfied the participant is awarded a specific number of Shares equivalent to the benefit achieved, or at their discretion, when the Shares are sold, the Participant has a right to receive a proportion of the sale proceeds insofar as the value of the Shares exceeds the threshold amount.

Participants

In prior periods Interests were acquired by the Participants under the first JSOS scheme ("JSOS1") in 32,476,700 Shares at an issue price of £1.50 per share, and the second group of Participants' JSOS scheme ("JSOS2") in 3,990,799 Shares at an issue price of £1.70 per share. In the prior period, 2,953,675 Shares in which interests of Participants have lapsed were reallocated to the third group of Participants under the JSOS scheme ("JSOS3"). For JSOS1 and JSOS2 there are four tranches, each with their own hurdle price. For JSOS3 there are two tranches, each with their own hurdle price.

JSOS1JSOS2JSOS3
TrancheVesting dateHurdle value% of issue priceTrancheVesting dateHurdle value% of issue priceTrancheVesting dateHurdle value% of market price
1 (2011)Jan 11£1.73115%1 (2012)June 12£1.96115%1 (2013)Jan 13£1.70230%–
265%
2 (2012)Jan 12£1.91127%2 (2013)June 13£2.15127%2 (2014)Jan 14£1.80244%–
280%
3 (2013)Jan 13£2.08139%3 (2014)June 14£2.36139%
4 (2014)Jan 14£2.28152%4 (2015)June 15£2.59152%

For JSOS1, Participants were required to purchase their Interest for 2.0% of the issue price. For JSOS2, the price was in a range of 7.1% to 10.8%, and for JSOS3, the price was in a range of 1.47% to 1.70% of the share price at date of issue. When an Interest vests, the Employee Benefit Trust Trustee will transfer Shares to the Participant of equal value to the Participant's Interest or the Shares will be sold and the Employee Benefit Trust Trustee will account to the Participant for the balance, i.e. the difference between the sale proceeds (less expenses) and the hurdle price.

Vesting conditions

The vesting of the Interests granted to Participants is subject to a time vesting condition, as detailed above.

The fair value of the Interests awarded under the JSOS was determined using the Black–Scholes Option Pricing Model. As per IFRS 2 "Share-Based Payment", market-based vesting conditions and the share price target conditions in the JSOS have been taken into account in establishing the fair value of the equity instruments granted. Other non-market or performance-related conditions were not taken into account in establishing the fair value of equity instruments granted; instead, these non-market vesting conditions are taken into account by adjusting the number of equity instruments included in the measurement of the transaction amount so that ultimately the amount recognised for services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted is based on the number of equity instruments that will eventually vest.

In determining the fair value of the Interests granted, the Black–Scholes Option Pricing Model was used with the following inputs:

JSOS1Tranche 1Tranche 2Tranche 3Tranche 4
Weighted average Share price£1.35£1.35£1.35£1.35
Weighted average exercise price£1.73£1.91£2.08£2.28
Expected volatility0.250.250.250.25
Weighted expected life — years0.911.912.913.91
Risk-free interest rate3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%
Expected dividend yield0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%
JSOS2Tranche 1Tranche 2Tranche 3Tranche 4
Weighted average Share price£1.70£1.70£1.70£1.70
Weighted average exercise price£1.96£2.15£2.36£2.59
Expected volatility0.250.250.250.25
Weighted expected life — years1.02.03.04.0
Risk-free interest rate3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%
Expected dividend yield0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%

Expected volatility was determined by comparing the Company to a basket of others of a similar size or which operate in a similar industry.

As the Interests in JSOS3 were reallocated from lapsed Interests in JSOS1 and JSOS2, the fair value of those Interests had been calculated in prior periods using the inputs disclosed in the tables above.

Details of the movement in the number of Interests in Shares during each period are as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Number of interests in SharesWeighted average exercise price (£)Number of interests in SharesWeighted average exercise price (£)
Outstanding at the beginning of the period33,795,9221.9934,851,8451.99
Granted during the period
Forfeited during the period
Exercised during the period(438,615)2.02(1,055,923)1.82
Outstanding at the end of the period33,357,3072.0033,795,9221.99
Exercisable at the end of the period32,503,6421.9823,934,1561.90

(c) Non-employee share options

Options to subscribe for ordinary shares and convertible preference shares have been granted by Ocado Limited to non-employees. These options are equity-settled, and do not have any vesting criteria. As a result of the Group's restructuring, these options are now held over ordinary shares in Ocado Group plc.

At each respective Balance sheet date the outstanding options were as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Date of issueNumber of
share options
Exercise
price (£)
Number of
share options
Exercise
price (£)
Exercise period
Feb 020.90886,7000.9004/02/02–04/02/17
Jan 04435,3001.03435,3001.0303/01/04–03/01/18
Outstanding at the end of the period435,300 1,322,000  

Details of the movement in the number of non-employee share options outstanding during each period are as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
 Number of
share options
Weighted
average
exercise
price (£)
Number of
share options
Weighted
average
exercise
price (£)
Outstanding at the beginning of the period1,322,0000.951,322,0000.95
Granted during the period
Forfeited during the period
Exercised during the period(886,700)0.90
Outstanding at the end of the period435,3001.031,322,0000.95
Exercisable at the end of the period435,3001.031,322,0000.95

The weighted average remaining contractual lives for outstanding non-employee share options are as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Exercise price
(£)
Number of
share options
Weighted
average
remaining
contractual life
(years)
Exercise price
(£)
Number of
share options
Weighted
average
remaining
contractual life
(years)
0.900.90886,7003.2
1.03435,3003.11.03435,3004.1
Outstanding at the end of the period435,300  1,322,000 

(d) Sharesave Scheme

In 2010 the Group launched the Ocado Group Sharesave Scheme ("SAYE"). This is an HMRC approved scheme and is open to any person that was an employee or officer of the Group at the launch date. Under the scheme, members save a fixed amount each month for three years. At the end of the three year period they are entitled to use these savings to buy shares in the Company at a price which is determined at launch date; 85% of the market value in the case of the Group's first Sharesave Scheme ("SAYE1") and 90% of the market value in the case of the Group's second Sharesave Scheme ("SAYE2") and third Sharesave Scheme ("SAYE3").

At 30 November 2014 employees of the Company's subsidiaries held 1,528 (2013: 2,049) contracts in respect of options over 3,789,044 (2013: 5,031,578) shares. Details of the movement in the number of Sharesave options outstanding during each period are as follows:

30 November 20141 December 2013
Number of
share options
Weighted
average
exercise
price (£)
Number of
share options
Weighted
average
exercise
price (£)
Outstanding at the beginning of the period5,031,5781.614,075,9940.98
Granted during the period1,577,6023.01
Forfeited during in the period(286,625)2.37(597,671)1.02
Exercised during the period(955,909)1.16(24,347)1.02
Outstanding at the end of the period3,789,0441.675,031,5781.61
Exercisable at the end of the period22,3471.39

(e) Long Term Incentive Plan

During the prior period, the Group introduced an equity-settled long term incentive plan ("LTIP") as approved by the Remuneration Committee and shareholders, under which shares are conditionally awarded to Executive Directors and select members of senior management. The number of awards issued are calculated based on a percentage of the participants' salaries and will vest at the end of a period of three years from the grant date. The final number and proportion of awards expected to vest will depend on achievement of certain performance conditions. For the 2013 LTIP, the single performance condition is the Group's earnings before interest, tax and exceptional items ("EBIT") for the financial year ending November 2015 and for the 2014 LTIP, the performance conditions are the Group's revenue and profit/(loss) per share for the financial year ending December 2016.

The number of awards issued, adjusted to reflect the achievement of the performance conditions, will then vest during 2016 for the 2013 LTIP and 2017 for the 2014 LTIP. Full vesting will only therefore occur where exceptional performance levels have been achieved and significant shareholder value created. An award will lapse if a participant ceases to be employed within the Group before the vesting date.

A summary of the status of this LTIP as at 30 November 2014 and changes during the year is presented below:

Number of
share awards
30 November
2014
Number of
share awards
1 December
2013
Outstanding at the beginning of the period3,365,852
Adjustment to share awards outstanding at the beginning of the period*1,582,724
Granted during the period672,8083,365,852
Forfeited during the period(533,536)
Outstanding at the end of the period5,087,8483,365,852

* The adjustment represents share awards in the prior period to selected members of senior management which were not disclosed in the prior period accounts. This did not impact the accounting entries.

There were no awards exercisable as at 30 November 2014 nor at 1 December 2013.

The Group recognised an expense of £3.8 million (2013: £2.3 million) related to these awards in the Consolidated income statement during the year. The expectation of meeting the performance criteria, based upon internal budgets and forecasts, was taken into account when calculating this expense.

(f) Chairman's Share Matching Award

During the prior period, the Group introduced the equity-settled Chairman's Share Matching Award, under which a one-off award of restricted shares were awarded to the Chairman, Lord Rose, on assuming the role of Chairman.

The award condition is based on a personal investment of a minimum of 400,000 shares and continued membership of the Board. This will vest three years from when the award was approved by the Remuneration Committee. There is no performance criteria to which vesting is subject.

These shares are restricted from being sold while he is on the Board and the shares are not allowed to be sold until the first anniversary of his ceasing to be a member of the Board.

A summary of the status of this Chairman's Share Matching Award as at 30 November 2014 and changes during the year is presented below:

Number of
share awards
30 November
2014
Number of
share awards
1 December
2013
Outstanding at the beginning of the period452,284
Granted during the period452,284
Outstanding at the end of the period452,284452,284

The Group recognised an expense of £0.4 million (2013: £0.2 million) related to this award in the Consolidated income statement during the year.

(g) Growth Incentive Plan

During the period, the Group introduced an equity-settled Growth Incentive Plan (GIP), under which nil cost shares were conditionally awarded to certain Executive Directors.

The final number and proportion of awards expected to vest will depend on achievement of a performance condition, being the growth in the Company's share price relative to the growth in the FTSE 100 Share Index over a five-year performance period.

These awards will vest in 2019. An award will lapse if a participant ceases to be employed within the Group before the vesting date.

Performance will be assessed based on the three-month average share price of the Company and the FTSE 100 Share Index at the end of the performance period in comparison to the three-month average share price of the Company and the FTSE 100 Share Index prior to the start of the performance period.

In determining the fair value of the awards granted, a unique Monte Carlo model was used with the following inputs:

30 November
2014
Weighted average share price£3.19
Value of FTSE 100 index6,389.25
Expected correlation29%
Expected volatility of Company40%
Expected volatility of FTSE 100 Index16%
Weighted expected life — years5.00
Risk-free rate1.96%
Expected dividend yield0.0%
Valuation modelMonte Carlo Pricing

Expected correlation was determined with reference to the historic share price correlation of the shares in the Company and the FTSE 100 Index over a period commensurate with the terms of the award (i.e. five years).

Expected volatility of the Company was determined by comparing the Company to others of a similar size or which operate in a similar industry. Expected volatility of the FTSE 100 Index was determined by reference to its historic volatility over a period commensurate with the terms of the award (i.e. five years). Volatility is a key estimate in determining the fair value of the GIP award, as the overall charge is most sensitive to changes in this assumption. Management have had regard to an appropriate range of alternative volatility assumptions, and concluded that a change in the volatility within this range would not have a material impact on the financial statements.

The use of the Monte Carlo model and calculation of the associated input parameters requires judgement. Therefore management obtained professional advice to assist in determining the fair value of the awards granted.

A summary of the GIP as at 30 November 2014 and changes during the year is presented below:

Number of
share awards
30 November
2014
Outstanding at the beginning of the year
Granted during the year6,000,000
Outstanding at the end of the year6,000,000

There were no awards exercisable as at 30 November 2014.

The Group recognised an expense of £0.9 million related to these awards in the Consolidated income statement during the year. The expectation of meeting the performance criteria was taken into account when calculating this expense.

(h) Share Incentive Plan

During the year, the Group introduced the Ocado Share Incentive Plan ("SIP"). This HMRC approved scheme provides all employees, including Executive Directors, the opportunity to receive and invest in Company shares. All SIP shares are held in a SIP Trust, administered by Yorkshire Building Society.

There are two elements in the plan - the Buy As You Earn ("BAYE") arrangement and the Free Share Award. Under the BAYE, participants can purchase shares in the Company ("Partnership Shares") each month using contributions from pre-tax pay, subject to an upper limit. For every seven shares purchased, the Company gifts the participant one free share ("Matching Shares").

Under the Free Shares Award shares are given to eligible employees, as a proportion of the annual base pay, subject to a maximum. Eligible employees are those with three months' service as at the grant date.

Partnership Shares can be withdrawn from the Plan Trust at any time; however, Matching Shares and Free Shares are subject to a three-year holding period, during which continuous employment within the Group is required. The Matching Shares will be forfeited if any corresponding Partnership Shares are removed from the Plan Trust within this three-year period, or if the participant leaves Ocado.

A summary of the status of the SIP as at 30 November 2014 and changes during the year is presented below:

Partnership
Shares
Matching
Shares
Free SharesNumber of
share awards
2014
Total
Outstanding at the beginning of the period
Granted during the period53,4107,283400,258460,951
Forfeited during the period(94)(17,115)(17,209)
Released during the period(696)(54)(750)
Sold during the period
Outstanding at the end of the period52,7147,189383,089442,992
Unrestricted at the end of the period52,71452,714

All Partnership Shares were unrestricted as at 30 November 2014. There were no unrestricted Matching Shares or Free Shares as at 30 November 2014.

In the year, the Group recognised an expense of £0.1 million related to these awards. The expectation of meeting the holding period was taken into account when calculating this expense.